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Matrix Configuration 18 X 18 Pixels !!BETTER!!


This looks to be a Samsung Super AMOLED display with a PenTile diamond matrix configuration with diamond shaped red and blue sub-pixels and oval shaped green sub-pixels in a 2:1 ratio with the red and blue sub-pixels.




Matrix Configuration 18 X 18 Pixels



(A) Schematic illustration of the high-performance MoS2-based backplane on a 4-inch carrier glass substrate, where an Al2O3 capping layer was applied for n-doping effects on the MoS2 film (top left), an active-matrix full-color display was applied to the ultrathin polymer substrate (top right), and the large-area full-color display was tested on a human hand (bottom right). (B) Scheme of the active-matrix full-color pixel array integrated with MoS2 transistors, where each pixel was connected via a gate, data, and cathode interconnector for line-addressing control. (C) Digital photograph of the active-matrix display on the 4-inch carrier glass substrate, where the inset demonstrates the full-color display when switched on. (D) Digital photograph of the large-area full-color display on the ultrathin polymer substrate, demonstrating the flexible mechanical properties due to the low bending stiffness of the ultrathin material. Photo credit: Minwoo Choi, Yonsei University.


A full-color AMOLED display was produced by depositing RGB OLEDs on the large-area MoS2 transistor array, which uniformly controls the RGB OLED pixels (Fig. 1A). A schematic illustration and digital photograph of the RGB OLED pixels integrated with the MoS2 transistors and the full-color AMOLED display placed on a carrier glass substrate are given in Fig. 1 (B and C). Each pixel was connected to a data and a scanning line, and the entire display circuitry operated in an active-matrix manner. The pixel current was precisely controlled according to the drain and gate signals of the transistor, thereby changing the brightness of the OLED. The inset in Fig. 1C depicts the array operation properties of the active-matrix pixels achieved via line-addressing control. The beneficial mechanical properties associated with an ultrathin display (


The LP5860EVM is used to evaluate the characteristics, operation, and usage for LED matrix driver LP5860. The LP5860 device is a high performance and small size solution, which integrates 18 constant current sinks with 11 switching MOSFETs, to drive up to 198 LED dots or 66 RGB LED pixels. Every LED dot is supported by 8-bit analog dimming and 8-bits or 16-bits configurable PWM dimming methods, which enable smooth and audible-noise-free dimming control.


"PenTile Matrix" (a neologism from penta-, meaning "five" in Greek and tile) describes the geometric layout of the prototypical subpixel arrangement developed in the early 1990s.[1] The layout consists of a quincunx comprising two red subpixels, two green subpixels, and one central blue subpixel in each unit cell. It was inspired by biomimicry of the human retina which has nearly equal numbers of L and M type cone cells, but significantly fewer S cones. As the S cones are primarily responsible for perceiving blue colors, which do not appreciably affect the perception of luminance, reducing the number of blue subpixels with respect to the red and green subpixels in a display does not reduce the image quality.[2][verification needed] However the layout may cause color leakage image distortion, which can be reduced by filters.[3][4] In some cases the layout causes reduced moiré and blockiness compared to conventional RGB layouts.[5] The PenTile layout is specifically designed to work with and be dependent upon subpixel rendering that uses only one and a quarter subpixel per pixel, on average, to render an image. That is, that any given input pixel is mapped to either a red-centered logical pixel, or a green-centered logical pixel.


PenTile RGBG layout used in AMOLED and plasma[8] displays uses green pixels interleaved with alternating red and blue pixels. The human eye is most sensitive to green, especially for high resolution luminance information. The green subpixels are mapped to input pixels on a one-to-one basis. The red and blue subpixels are subsampled, reconstructing the chroma signal at a lower resolution. The luminance signal is processed using adaptive subpixel rendering filters to optimize reconstruction of high spatial frequencies from the input image, wherein the green subpixels provide the majority of the reconstruction. The red and blue subpixels are capable of reconstructing the horizontal and vertical spatial frequencies, but not the highest of the diagonal. Diagonal high spatial frequency information in the red and blue channels of the input image are transferred to the green subpixels for image reconstruction. Thus the RG-BG scheme creates a color display with one third fewer subpixels than a traditional RGB-RGB scheme but with the same measured luminance display resolution.[9][10] This is similar to the Bayer filter commonly used in digital cameras.


PenTile RGBW technology, used in LCD, adds an extra subpixel to the traditional red, green and blue subpixels that is a clear area without color filtering material and with the only purpose of letting backlight come through,[24] hence W for white. This makes it possible to produce a brighter image compared to an RGB-matrix while using the same amount of power, or produce an equally bright image while using less power.[25]


The PenTile RGBW layout uses each red, green, blue and white subpixel to present high-resolution luminance information to the human eyes' red-sensing and green-sensing cone cells, while using the combined effect of all the color subpixels to present lower-resolution chroma (color) information to all three cone cell types. Combined, this optimizes the match of display technology to the biological mechanisms of human vision.[26] The layout uses one third fewer subpixels for the same resolution as the RGB stripe (RGB-RGB) layout, in spite of having four color primaries instead of the conventional three, using subpixel rendering combined with metamer rendering. Metamer rendering optimizes the energy distribution between the white subpixel and the combined red, green, and blue subpixels: W RGB, to improve image sharpness.


An ongoing controversy regarding the definition or measurement of resolution of color subpixelated flat panel displays led many people[32][33][34] to question the resolution claims of PenTile display products.[35] Journalists have noted that in "just about every flat-panel TV in existence, each pixel is composed of one red, one green, and one blue subpixel (RGB), all of uniform size".[8] In traditional flat-panel screens, the resolution is defined by the number of red, green, and blue subpixels, in groups of three, in an array in each axis. As a result, each pixel or group of subpixels can render any colour on the screen, regardless of neighbouring pixels. This is not the case with PenTile screens.


The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) method of measuring and defining resolution in color displays is to measure the contrast of line pairs, requiring a minimum of 50% Michelson contrast for displays intended for rendering text.[36] The developers of PenTile displays use this VESA criterion for contrast of line pairs to calculate the resolutions specified.[37] In the RGBG layout the alternate red and blue subpixels are 'shared' or sub-sampled with neighboring pixels. Due to the one third lower subpixel density on PenTile displays[38] the pixel structure may be more visible when compared to RGB stripe displays with the same pixel density.[39][40] The loss of subpixels for a given resolution specification has led some journalists to describe the use of PenTile as "shady practice"[41] and "sort of cheating".[42]


For a given size and resolution specification, the PenTile screen can appear grainy, pixelated, speckled, with blurred text on some saturated colors and backgrounds when compared to RGB stripe color.[43] This effect is understood to be caused by the restriction of the number of subpixels that may participate in the image reconstruction when colors are highly saturated to primaries. In the RGBW case, this is caused as the W subpixel will not be available in order to maintain the saturated color. In the RGBG case, this effect will occur when the color boundary is primarily red or blue, as the fully populated (one green per pixel) sub-pixel cannot contribute. For all other cases, text and especially full color images are effectively reconstructed.[27]


The PenTile layout reduces the number of subpixels needed to create a specified resolution. Consequently it is possible to achieve an HD resolution on a PenTile AMOLED screen at lower cost than other technologies, and most reviewers note that "300 ppi" (as per VESA - not full pixels) resolution displays (such as Samsung Galaxy S III) make the PenTile effect less obvious than lower resolution PenTile displays (Droid Razr). The second advantage is lower power consumption: the HTC One S's use of a PenTile display makes it more energy efficient and thinner than equivalent LCD screens, giving it better battery life than the HTC One X's IPS LCD.[44][45][46][47] A PenTile AMOLED screen is also cheaper than an RGB stripe AMOLED.[48]


Most PenTile displays use rectangular grids of alternating green and blue/red pixels. However the Samsung Galaxy S4 uses a PenTile Diamond Pixel array, where the green pixels are oval and repeat in a single line, while red and blue pixels are larger and alternate between the lines of green, ensuring more uniform colours with fewer aberrations compared to the earlier generation PenTile display on the Galaxy S III.[50]


imagesc(C) displays the data in array C as an image that uses the full range of colors in the colormap. Each element of C specifies the color for one pixel of the image. The resulting image is an m-by-n grid of pixels where m is the number of rows and n is the number of columns in C. The row and column indices of the elements determine the centers of the corresponding pixels. 350c69d7ab


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