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[S1E1] System

Hardware verification teams use emulation systems for faster SoC design verification, while software development teams need the additional performance that can be achieved with prototyping technology. With Synopsys ZeBu EP1 system teams are free from the constraints of fixed hardware, allowing their verification and software development requirements to drive how and when to shift capacity between emulation and prototyping, rather than having to estimate early on how much of each resource might be needed.

[S1E1] System

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The unified hardware system provides an easy-to-bring up emulation flow with high performance and support for full debug visibility. Using the prototyping flow of the Synopsys ZeBu EP1 system, teams can validate designs against real world interfaces at the highest possible performance.

Achieving 19MHz emulation clock is fantastic, but as we all know, software developers have an insatiable thirst for higher performance. By adding prototyping support, the same ZeBu EP1 system can also run at up to 100MHz prototyping clock. Booting an OS, developing drivers and firmware, and running real-world software scenarios on a pre-silicon target is no problem for the Synopsys ZeBu EP1 system.

We all have come to appreciate the unique benefits that come with emulation and prototyping systems. There is now finally a unique solution that offers flexible capacity without compromising on the benefits of each methodology. Synopsys ZeBu EP1 unified hardware system offers the fastest emulation and prototyping, along with 3x compile-time improvement, making it possible to run multiple compiles in a day.

But this crush of caseloads can lead to poor defendants spending longer in jail, waiting for their public defenders to get to their cases. And courts need public defenders to move their cases through the system. So without enough public defenders, the whole system grinds to a halt.

Hardware verification teams use emulation systems for faster SoC design verification, while software development teams need the additional performance that can be achieved with prototyping technology. However, it has been challenging for chip and system development teams to determine upfront the optimal balance of emulation and prototyping hardware capacity. The new Synopsys ZeBu EP1 system with flexible hardware helps eliminate this dilemma. Teams are free from the constraints of fixed hardware, allowing their verification and software development requirements to drive how and when to shift capacity between emulation and prototyping, rather than having to estimate early on how much of each resource might be needed.

Leon: An important starting point is actually to consider the nature of crisis itself. Because I think what many education systems today are facing are multiple crises, and they all interact with each other in very complex ways of course we're very aware at the moment of the COVID-19 pandemic. And we know that some education systems sadly are dealing with crises caused by conflict and natural disasters. But of course, underlying that is the ongoing learning crisis that affects many low and middle-income countries, where large numbers of learners are not meeting basic threshold standards in literacy and numeracy. And of course, the thing about all of these crises is that they all reinforce each other. And of course, you know, some groups suffer more from crises than others, and we need to be really aware of that. So, understanding how crises reinforce complex inequalities is very important.

I think crises within complex systems also require us to rethink traditional conceptions of leadership in education. I think what we need to do is to move away from top-down models. We need to understand or to develop more context-sensitive approaches, that we've described as endogenous systems leadership. And I hand over to Rafael now who can perhaps say a little bit more about that

Rafael: So endogenous systems leadership - endogenous in that it derives from a particular national context and respects local values and agency. When we think about what enables the leadership of ministries, we need to think about the kinds of countries that IIEP is often supporting and these are countries which are furthest from achieving their global targets- low and middle-income countries. And those that have experienced conflict over a number of years. So, these tend to be formerly colonized countries, which are still experiencing these enduring legacies of colonialism and inequitable power relations in their dealings with agencies in the global north. So, in these contexts, then, one of the barriers to ministries' leadership can be the activities of international organizations themselves. Which are often well-intentioned, but which can uh override local decision-making. So, we see this in evidence from IIEP's own research in countries from Burkina Faso to Kenya and elsewhere. So, part of enabling ministry of education leadership is about recognizing local values, knowledge, practices and institutions as well. In many contexts we've got to acknowledge that the status quo doesn't achieve that, even outside crises. So, it does require quite a radical transformation of the status quo.

Rafael: I mean, at its heart when we talk about leadership we're talking about influence. So influence occurs within the formal bureaucratic structure of an education system. But importantly we've got to recognize it occurs outside that. And it doesn't just occur in a top-down way. So, we need to take a more extended view of leadership within education and just acknowledge the influence of teachers themselves and others in school. But in addition to that, parents, and other people within the community, as well as in many contexts religious groups and civil society organizations.

Stephanie: So, you're speaking about something quite different from a typical top-down or more authoritarian approach to leadership- that we might be more used to thinking of in a crisis situation where you'd want everybody to kind of follow the rules. So maybe Leon, can you say a little more about systems leadership for education in crisis, and perhaps provide us with an example of what this might look like in practice?

Leon: So, I think, systems leadership as an idea, is something that is increasingly accepted as a useful idea, not just in education but in other systems, like health systems and responding to the Covid crisis and so on. And I think at its heart is the idea that, you know, if you're going to deal with crises, then you really need to mobilize and harness leadership from right across the system. And that's particularly important when it comes to crisis, which may involve changes to different parts of the system but doing it in a coordinated way. But I think another aspect of systems leadership is the importance of information. Of having really good data about how crises are affecting different groups of learners at different points in the system. And I think, you know, the EMIS, the education management information systems that many ministries of education rely on there's a lot of work going on in some uh ministries to try and provide more up-to-date information about how changes to education systems are affecting different groups of learners. And this kind of information is absolutely crucial.

Rafael: So, one example of this kind of systems thinking in operation during a crisis situation is the Rwanda learning partnership. This is a study which looked at school-level leadership practices during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special emphasis on support for the most vulnerable and marginalized learners. Now what this work shows is that school-level innovation is necessary, and feasible in crises. And in fact, it's obvious that it's necessary because solutions can't be centrally mandated, because they're not yet known. So, ministries need to foster an enabling environment for local innovation, improvisation. So as Leon says this is about establishing two-way communication from the local level to the ministry, so they can learn from that and scale up what is working. But this very much runs counter to the kinds of top-down bureaucratic systems that we've inherited from the age of empire.

Stephanie: In our work on crisis response with stakeholders at multiple levels of the education system it's almost inevitable that the issue of financing or resourcing comes up. And I believe that this is a key issue that you are attempting to address in your work. So, what would you say are the biggest challenges when it comes to funding? Maybe I can ask you Rafael

Rafael: Thanks Stephanie. So, I think what we see is a disconnect between global policy statements on financing and reality on the ground. A disconnect, really, between humanitarian funding systems and development-focused ones, and different time scales. And really what we need is greater coherence between these different elements, which allows just a longer-term, more strategic decision-making in education, in crises and outside it.

Stephanie: That certainly relates a lot to some of the work that we've been doing in looking at refugees for example. I know that in Jordan, there are big efforts to kind of mainstream refugee education into the national system, and what was really surprising to us- in a good way- is examples of leadership happening at the school level, where school principals were able to sort of speak to the local level government, as well as donors and ask for more even distribution of resources between host communities and refugee schools.

Leon: I still think, though, that there's a crucial role for the ministry. The ministry needs to create the culture within the education system that will make sure that you know, there's a really clear vision that can bring people together around dealing with crises. And also, that there are processes of communication across the education system, and also between the education system and other agencies- and external partners- that is really important. 041b061a72


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