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Mason Campbell
Mason Campbell

Buy C60 Fullerene

Bioactive soluble carbon nanostructures, such as the C60 fullerene can bond with up to six electrons, thus serving by a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species similarly to many natural antioxidants, widely used to decrease the muscle fatigue effects. The aim of the study is to define action of the pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS), on the post-fatigue recovering of m. triceps surae in anaesthetized rats.

buy c60 fullerene

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerenes on the recovery dynamics of the contractile properties of rat m. triceps surae (TS) after the development muscle fatigue under conditions of long-term activation.

A highly stable reproducible pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS) at a concentration of 0.15 mg/ml was prepared according to a previous protocol [20, 21]. Briefly, for the preparation of C60FAS we used a saturated solution of pure C60 fullerene (purity >99.99%) in toluene with a C60 molecule concentration corresponding to maximum solubility near 2.9 mg/ml, and the same amount of distilled water in an open beaker. The two phases formed were treated in ultrasonic bath. The procedure was continued until the toluene had completely evaporated and the water phase became yellow colored. Filtration of the aqueous solution allowed to separate the product from undissolved C60 fullerenes. The pore size of the filter during the filtration of the aqueous solution was smaller than 2 µm (Typ Whatmann 602 h1/2). The purity of prepared C60FAS (i.e., the presence/absence of any residual impurities, for example carbon black, toluene phase) was determined by HPLC and GC/MS analysis. The maximal concentration of C60 fullerenes in water 0.15 mg/ml was obtained by this method.

The state of C60 fullerenes in aqueous solution was monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Under AFM analysis, the sample was deposited onto a cleaved mica substrate (V-1 Grade, SPI Supplies) by precipitation from an aqueous solution droplet. Sample visualization was performed in semi-contact (tapping) mode (Fig. 1a, b). AFM measurements were performed after the complete evaporation of the solvent.

AFM images (tapping mode) of C60 fullerene particles on the mica surface, which were precipitated from C60FAS with an initial concentration of 0.15 mg/ml (a, b). Arrows indicate the height of the individual particles. Experimental SANS curve (points) for C60FAS (0.15 mg/ml). Solid lines correspond to the model curve obtained by the IFT procedure. Insert: the pair distance distribution function as a result of the IFT procedure for scattering from C60 fullerene nanoparticles present in the C60FAS (c)

Experimental SANS curve for C60FAS is shown in Fig. 1c. The scattering curve of C60FAS is well described by the form-factor of polydisperse spherical particles. The mean radius of gyration of the particle cross section, Rg, and pair distance distribution function, P(r), were found by using indirect Fourier transformation (IFT) approach [33]. We can calculate the radius of particles, R, present in the C60FAS according to well-known equation R 2g = 0.6R2 assuming of homogeneous and spherical of C60 fullerene clusters. This conclusion follows from previous experimental data [20, 21] and the estimates of the average cluster density according to the contrast-variation experiments [31, 32, 34]. The data given by this procedure indicate that C60FAS consists of C60 fullerene sphere-like nanoparticles with an average size of 56 nm that is in a good agreement with above AFM data.

It is known [35, 36] that the permeability and cytochemical behavior of nanoparticles strongly depend on their size and, correspondingly, mass (number) distribution. In this regard, our previous studies [16, 18, 19, 29] clear demonstrate that the used C60 fullerene nanoparticles can effectively penetrate through the plasma membrane of cells by passive diffusion or endocytosis (depending on the size) and do not exhibit cytotoxic effects.

It is known that application of different nature exogenous antioxidants leads to a significant reduction of fatigue skeletal muscle during intense physical activity and increases the onset time of muscle fatigue under prolonged intense endurance exercise [10, 61, 62]. These data demonstrate the feasibility of using antioxidants to correct the level of oxidative stress in the muscle tissue under extreme influences on the body and its efficiency increasing. Since pristine C60 fullerenes, as previously shown in various models in vitro and in vivo [13, 15, 63], actively bind free radicals and display a powerful antioxidant properties of direct action, we can assume that the application of water-soluble C60 fullerenes led to the prooxidant-antioxidant balance normalization in the muscle tissue of rats and helped improve the dynamic parameters of muscle contraction.

A fullerene is an allotrope of carbon whose molecule consists of carbon atoms connected by single and double bonds so as to form a closed or partially closed mesh, with fused rings of five to seven atoms. The molecule may be a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, or many other shapes and sizes. Graphene (isolated atomic layers of graphite), which is a flat mesh of regular hexagonal rings, can be seen as an extreme member of the family.

The family is named after buckminsterfullerene (C60), the most famous member, which in turn is named after Buckminster Fuller. The closed fullerenes, especially C60, are also informally called buckyballs for their resemblance to the standard ball of association football ("soccer"). Nested closed fullerenes have been named bucky onions. Cylindrical fullerenes are also called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes.[1] The bulk solid form of pure or mixed fullerenes is called fullerite.[2]

Fullerenes had been predicted for some time, but only after their accidental synthesis in 1985 were they detected in nature[3][4] and outer space.[5][6] The discovery of fullerenes greatly expanded the number of known allotropes of carbon, which had previously been limited to graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon such as soot and charcoal. They have been the subject of intense research, both for their chemistry and for their technological applications, especially in materials science, electronics, and nanotechnology.[7]

Also in the 1980's at MIT, Mildred Dresselhaus and Morinobu Endo, collaborating with T. Venkatesan, directed studies blasting graphite with lasers, producing carbon clusters of atoms, which would be later identified as "fullerenes."[15]

In 1985, Harold Kroto of the University of Sussex, working with James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley from Rice University, discovered fullerenes in the sooty residue created by vaporising carbon in a helium atmosphere. In the mass spectrum of the product, discrete peaks appeared corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms, namely C60 and C70. The team identified their structure as the now familiar "buckyballs".[16]

The name "buckminsterfullerene" was eventually chosen for C60 by the discoverers as an homage to American architect Buckminster Fuller for the vague similarity of the structure to the geodesic domes which he popularized; which, if they were extended to a full sphere, would also have the icosahedral symmetry group.[17] The "ene" ending was chosen to indicate that the carbons are unsaturated, being connected to only three other atoms instead of the normal four. The shortened name "fullerene" eventually came to be applied to the whole family.

Kroto and the Rice team already discovered other fullerenes besides C60,[16] and the list was much expanded in the following years. Carbon nanotubes were first discovered and synthesized in 1991.[19][20]

After their discovery, minute quantities of fullerenes were found to be produced in sooty flames,[21] and by lightning discharges in the atmosphere.[4] In 1992, fullerenes were found in a family of mineraloids known as shungites in Karelia, Russia.[3]

The production techniques were improved by many scientists, including Donald Huffman, Wolfgang Krätschmer, Lowell D. Lamb, and Konstantinos Fostiropoulos.[22] Thanks to their efforts, by 1990 it was relatively easy to produce gram-sized samples of fullerene powder. Fullerene purification remains a challenge to chemists and to a large extent determines fullerene prices.

Buckminsterfullerene is the smallest fullerene molecule containing pentagonal and hexagonal rings in which no two pentagons share an edge (which can be destabilizing, as in pentalene). It is also most common in terms of natural occurrence, as it can often be found in soot.

The empirical formula of buckminsterfullerene is C60 and its structure is a truncated icosahedron, which resembles an association football ball of the type made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons, with a carbon atom at the vertices of each polygon and a bond along each polygon edge.

The buckminsterfullerene molecule has two bond lengths. The 6:6 ring bonds (between two hexagons) can be considered "double bonds" and are shorter than the 6:5 bonds (between a hexagon and a pentagon). Its average bond length is 1.4 Å.

The smallest possible fullerene is the dodecahedral C20. There are no fullerenes with 22 vertices.[29] The number of different fullerenes C2n grows with increasing n = 12, 13, 14, ..., roughly in proportion to n9 (sequence A007894 in the OEIS). For instance, there are 1812 non-isomorphic fullerenes C60. Note that only one form of C60, buckminsterfullerene, has no pair of adjacent pentagons (the smallest such fullerene). To further illustrate the growth, there are 214,127,713 non-isomorphic fullerenes C200, 15,655,672 of which have no adjacent pentagons. Optimized structures of many fullerene isomers are published and listed on the web.[30] 041b061a72


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